The Snow Lion against the Dragon - A Mandate of Heaven AAR

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AlbertoC
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The Snow Lion against the Dragon - A Mandate of Heaven AAR

Post by AlbertoC » Mon Oct 24, 2016 3:08 pm

The Snow Lion against the Dragon

Background

In 1618, Manchu leader Nurhaci listed the Seven Grievances and declared war on the Ming. The Manchus then proceeded to capture several Chinese cities in the north eastern frontier. Nurhaci died in 1626 and was succeeded by his son, Hong Taiji. Hong Taiji continued the work of his father and was able to capture Beijing and most of northern China. This forced the Ming court to move south.
In 1635, Karma Tenkyong, leader of the dominant Tibetan dynasty of Tsangpa held a council with other Tibetan lords as advised by his spiritual leader. It was said that the Buddhist monks had visions of the kingdom being overrun by a foreign power. As the Ming had left Tibet autonomous in the past, they believed the visions were about the Manchus. In the end, they decided to set aside their differences and unite against a common foe. Armies were mustered and sent deep into western China. The helpless Ming governors just let them though.
In 1636, Hong Taiji proclaimed the Qing dynasty and claimed the Mandate of Heaven.

Late Spring 1636


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In the spring of 1636, Tibetan General Choegyal Talaia’s army was at Chengdu while Wangchuk Dorje’s army was at Wuchang. The Manchu 1st army was at Kaifeng, led by Alechi. The Manchu 2nd army was in Nanjing, led by Suksaha.
Choegyal moved from Chengdu to Xi’an and Alechi moved in to confront the Tibetans.

Battle of Xi’an

Tibet 39,000 vs. Qing 46,000

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The commander in chief of the Tibetan army, Choegyal Talaia, commanded 14,000 warriors with bows, spears, and matchlocks positioned in the centre woods. Sangye Yontan commanded a large heavy cavalry division of 10,500 on left flank. Tenzin Phuntsok commanded 4,500 heavy cavalry on right flank. Mounted and dismounted skirmishers scattered all around the front.

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During the battle Tenzin Phuntsok’s cavalry units got into trouble. Qing general, Buyanggu broke the lines but got fragmented by Choegyal Talaia’s matchlockmen and archers in the rear. Songye Yontan’s cavalry were held back by superior Qing swordsmen and the Tibetan cavalry shot arrows at the swordsmen instead of charging.
Despite the early setback Tenzin Phuntsok cut through the Qing infantry with his remaining men and engaged the enemy commander-in-chief Alechi’s personal troops.
Qing General Jiamo suffered a punishing volley from Choegyal Talaia’s troops and was forced to retreat when attacked by Tibetan spearmen. Buyanggu retreated as well. Choegyal Talaia moved to the front line to command the spearmen personally against some Qing armoured Bannermen but his presence was not enough to save the unit from wavering. The general was lightly wounded during the fight.


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Alechi was wounded in a duel against Tenzin Phuntsok. His bodyguards were able to escort him out of the melee. Alechi then ordered a retreat into Kaifeng where they would meet with the Qing 2nd army.
Tibet lost 6,162 men. Manchu lost 26,322 men.

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Re: The Snow Lion against the Dragon - A Mandate of Heaven A

Post by AlbertoC » Mon Oct 24, 2016 3:13 pm

Early Summer 1636

Wangchuk Dorje led the Tibetan 2nd army into Nanjing to divert the Qing’s attention from Choegyal Talaia’s siege of Xi’an. But the plan did not work as the combined Qing army, led by Suksaha, chose to engage Choegyal Talaia instead.

2nd Battle of Xi’an

Tibet 31,000 vs. Qing 39,000

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The Tibetans took positions on top of a hill. Commander-in-chief Cheongyal Talaia took the centre with his infantry. Sangye Yontan took the left flank while Tenzin Phuntsok took the right flank. Dismounted skirmishers were positioned on the hill to the right. Mounted skirmishers on the left.

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The Tibetan army waited for the Qing to approach their lines before attacking. When the enemy was relatively near, Tenzin Phuntsok charged with his cavalry but the Qing Bannermen evaded and this put him a bad position. His personal troops were surrounded and attacked on the flanks.
Tenzhin Phuntsok fought valiantly and held his precarious position as Sangye Yontan attacked the Qing infantry on the right flank. He was able to send several enemy infantry units routing; thus clearing the way for Cheongyal Talalia as he descended the hill with his troops. The Qing were eventually defeated once again.

Tibet lost 4,836 men. Manchu lost 21,780 men.
Qing general Buyanggu was severely wounded during the action. General Suksaha was relieved of his command and was replaced by Alechi.

Late Summer 1636


Wanchuk Dorje tried to attack Alechi at Kaifeng but the battered Qing army retreated to Beijing. Cheongyal Talalia continued the siege of Xi’an and the province finally fell into Tibetan hands. After a brief rest in the capital, Alechi moved from Beijing to Taiyuan.

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Re: The Snow Lion against the Dragon - A Mandate of Heaven A

Post by AlbertoC » Mon Oct 24, 2016 3:19 pm

Early Autumn – Late Autumn 1636

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Wangchuk Dorje once again confronted Alechi, this time at Taiyuan, but the Manchu general avoided battle and fled to Beijing. Cheogyal Talalia, now with a weaker army as he left some troops to garrison Xi’an, led his army into Kaifeng but was intercepted by Alechi.

Battle of Kaifeng


Tibet 17,000 vs. Qing 46,000

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Commander-in-Chief Cheogyal Talaia with heavy cavalry and Sangye Yontan with matchlockmen deployed in a forest at the centre of the army. Tenzin Phuntsok deployed on the left flank. Skirmishers are deployed in the far left and right.
Tenzin Phuntsok engaged the Qing Green Standard infantry despite being outnumbered. Qing General Jiamo and his personal cavalry rushed in to support Alechi’s infantry but got surrounded by Tibetan horsemen. Jiamo’s unarmoured Bannermen suffered huge casualties from arrows fired by the versatile Tibetan cavalry and fled.

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Another General, Suksaha, with armoured Bannermen, engaged the Tibetans on the left. Unlike Jaimo’s troops, Suksaha’s Bannermen took less casualties from the Tibetan arrows. Knowing that the Manchu Bannermen would evade when charged, the Tibetans chose to use their bows despite their being ineffective. A mounted archery battle ensued with no clear winner. But Suksaha became more and more isolated as the rest of the Qing units dispersed.

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Qing flanking troops emerged from the woods on the right, closing in on Sangye Yontan’s matchlockmen. At the same time, Alechi’s advance on Sangye’s position was stalled due to successful harassment from Tibetan cavalry and skirmishers.

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Cheongyal Talaia charged Alechi’s isolated personal troops which were apparently poor quality garrison spearmen. The spearmen and Alechi fled after a brief clash.
A body of Qing spearmen, supported by skirmishers, attacked the matchlockmen in the woods. But this action wasn’t able to turn the tide and the Qing eventually lost heart and retired from the battle.

Alechi was once again relieved from his command and the remnants of the once glorious Qing army was now led by Suksaha who showed bravery and resolve during the battle of Kaifeng.
Tibet lost 3,174 men while the Qing lost 26,922 men. This was another brilliant victory under the belt of Cheogyal Talaia and his generals. But after fighting three battles, his men were desperately in need of reinforcements.
Tibetan armies laid siege to Taiyuan and Kaifeng. The Manchus attacked Wuchang. None of the cities fell and all armies returned to winter quarters.

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Re: The Snow Lion against the Dragon - A Mandate of Heaven A

Post by AlbertoC » Mon Oct 24, 2016 3:26 pm

Early Spring 1637

The battered Qing 1st army led by Suksaha was situated in Kaifeng. The Qing 2nd army mobilised at Taiyuan, led by Bujai. The Qing 3rd army mobilised at Nanjing, led by Ulhuda.
The Tibetan 1st and 2nd armies regrouped at Xi’an. A third army was mobilised in Wuchang, led by Bagmed Tangpa.

Late Spring 1637


Wangchuk Dorje led his army from Xi’an to Kaifeng and Suksaha retreated to Nanjing.

Battle of Taiyuan

Tibet 20,500 vs. Qing 46,500

Choegyal Talaia attacked Taiyuan and Qing General Bujai met him in the field. Not all of the Tibetan troops had arrived when the two armies met in between thick forests. This was not the ideal battleground for the Tibetan cavalry.

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Choegyal’s battleplan was to wait for the rest of the army to arrive. Knowing that the forest would also force the enemy to split up, he hoped to take on the isolated troops as they emerged from the forest one by one.

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Qing General Mutawuta, along with armoured Bannermen and skirmishers, was the first to engage the Tibetan troops on the left. The Qing broke some skirmishers and chased down the other evading units. This led them closer to Tenzin Phuntsok’s cavalry who in turn counter-charged. But the Qing Bannermen evaded.
Qing Commander-in-Chief Bujai and his Green Standard infantry emerged from the woods and started shooting at Choegyal Talaia and Kunga Junge’s troops. The Tibetan lancers advanced against a hail of arrows and matchlock balls.

Tenzin’s units engaged in an archery battle with Mutawuta’s superior and more numerous Bannermen but were disrupted.

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It looked like the Tibetans would end up being more isolated than the Qing. Concentrated fire was able to break one of the Tibetan lancer formations before they were able to make contact. But when the Tibetan lancers did engage the Green Standard infantry in melee, the results were stunning. Kunga Jugey was able to rout two units in succession and Choegyal Talaia’s opponent easily fragmented. But the problem still persisted. As the lancers chased down the fleeing infantry, they became more and more isolated. Kunga Jugey chased some infantry which led him to Qing General Urgudai and his superior armoured Bannermen.
On the left, Tenzin Phuntsok’s personal cavalry unit had had enough and fled while his other cavalry unit tried to engage the Bannermen who still avoided melee combat.

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On the right, Kunga Jugey fell into an ambush set up by Urgudai and was easily routed.
Sangye Yontan’s matchlockmen frantically shot at a charging Qing swordsmen unit. The unit was disrupted but kept advancing until impact. Sangye Yontan took some casualties in the melee but the swordsmen wavered and were eventually broken when they saw other Green Standard units fleeing the battle.
Choegyal Talaia’s lancers suffered severe casualties to matchlock fire from the woods. This broke his unit’s resolve.

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Tibetan reinforcements routed Bujai’s unit while Sangye Yontan’s matchlockmen engaged in a desperate firefight. On the left, Tenzin Phuntsok rallied his men but it was too late to make a difference. With Sangye Yontan’s units broken, the Tibetan army had nothing left to throw against the victorious Qing.
Tibet lost 14,000 men. Qing lost 10,000 men. Choegyal Talaia retreated to Xi’an.

Battle of Nanjing

Bagmed Tangpa attacked Nanjing. General Ulhuda’s army was incorporated into General Suksaha’s 1st army to face the invaders.
Tibet 31,000 vs. Qing 40,000

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Bagmed Tangpa, the Tibetan Commander-in-Chief, commanded 19,000 infantry with matchlocks and spears deployed behind a small hill in front. They would try to hold the hill for the duration of the battle. To his right were the Tibetan kingdom’s most seasoned warriors, Sonam Labdorn and Naljor Ngodup with a total of 6,800 lancers (they have a duel rating of 7 and 6 respectively). Further right were some skirmishers. A flanking force of 1,500 lancers and 1,400 slingers were sent out with the hopes of catching the enemy flanks by surprise.
Both armies deployed into their battle lines and waited for the other to make the first move. By the time the flanking force arrived on the right, the armies had yet to engage. As midday passed, the Tibetan generals grew impatient. Sonam and Naljor, confident of their martial skill, advocated an all-out attack. They believed their cavalry would prevail against the Qing infantry. But the experienced and cautious Bagmed doubted the wisdom of such a move as he would not be able to move his troops coherently across the swamp ahead. The war council thus decided to send out the mounted skirmishers with the hopes of agitating and luring the Qing army into action. But the Manchu commander Suksaha would just not give the orders to attack.

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As the afternoon passed, the frustrated Tibetans finally moved forward. They just had to fight the Manchu before the day ended to claim a victory.
As the Tibetans charged, the Qing infantry wisely stayed in the fields as this would give some degree of protection against cavalry. A shooting match between the Tibetan cavalry and the Qing infantry ensued which resulted into several Tibetan units becoming disrupted.

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On the left, Manchu General Suksaha with his swordsmen engaged Bagmed Tangpa’s matchlockmen in close combat. Bagmed fell in a duel against Suksaha and his men fled.

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Manchu General Ulhuda then attacked Sonam Labdorn’s unit from the flanks until it broke. Despite the setbacks, the remaining Tibetan units continued to fight valiantly on the rice paddies. But it was not enough to break the Qing army. As night fell, the unsuccessful Tibetan Lords fled and returned to Wuchang to regroup.
Tibet lost 6,700 men while Qing lost 6,000 men. Old Bagmed Tangpa was severely wounded and would not fight battles anymore. The Qing retained control of Nanjing and their 2nd Army led by Bujai left Taiuyan and marked to Nanjing.

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Re: The Snow Lion against the Dragon - A Mandate of Heaven A

Post by AlbertoC » Mon Oct 24, 2016 3:29 pm

Early Summer 1637

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With all the Qing armies concentrated in Nanjing, Choegyal Talaia’s battered army moved from Xi’an to Kaifeng and joined with Wangchuk Dorje’s army. Choegyal gained command of the combined Tibetan 1st Army. The Tibetan 3rd Army, now commanded by Naljor Ngodup, also moved to Kaifeng to reinforce the siege operations.
With Wuchang undefended, Manchu General Suksaha attacked the city while Bujai moved north to Jinan.

Late Summer 1637


The Tibetans figured that the defenders of Wuchang would be able to hold on for some time so they still concentrated on the siege of Kaifeng. The plan worked and Kaifeng fell into Tibetan hands while Wuchang had not yet yielded to the Qing.

Early Autumn 1637


Choegal Talaia moved south to lift the siege of Wuchang. Suksaha avoided battle and retreated to Nanjing and met with Bujai. The combined Qing army, under Suksaha’s command, stormed into Kaifeng as Naljor Ngodup did not put up a fight and retreated to Wuchang.

Late Autumn 1637


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Hearing of the fate of Kaifeng, Tibetan general Choegal Talaia joined up with Naljor Ngodup. The combined armies confronted the Qing at Kaifeng once again and Suksaha was eager to fight this time around.

2nd Battle of Kaifeng


Tibet 50,000 vs Qing 51,000

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General Tenzin Phuntsok commanded a large body of infantry and took the centre position along the rice paddy. To his left was Sangye Yontan with 3,900 lancers. To his right was Wangchuk Dorje with 7,200 lancers. Acting as reserve was Commander Choegyal Talaia’s 4,000 lancers.
As the Qing infantry marched forward, Tenzin’s matchlockmen were able to rout some of the units before contact.

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On the left, Sangye Yontan’s lancers ganged up on Alechi’s personal Bannermen. A duel between the two generals ensued and Alechi was the victor. But Alechi’s unit was not able to fight back the rest of the Tibetan lancers and was routed. Sangye Yontan’s injuries turned out to be relatively light.
On the right, Wangchuk Dorje charged at Bujai’s Bannermen but his target fled. A hail of arrows disrupted his unit while the rest of his men rushed to his aid.

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General Tenzin’s infantry held the centre and most of the Qing Green Standard infantry fled, including Qing Commander Suksaha’s personal troops. But the fight was not over as Bujai’s Bannermen were still at large on the right flank. Bujai had been able to defeat several of Wangchuk Dorje’s lancers but not Wangchuk himself. Wangchuk evaded the Bannermen, rode deep into the enemy’s rear and attacked some infantry instead. Tibetan Commander Choegal Talaia then sent his lancers to the right to plug the gap.
General Bujai, the new commander in chief, thought that the situation was hopeless and ordered a withdrawal to Beijing. The Qing lost 30,000 men. Making sure that the lancers engaged the enemy in the open, the Tibetans have won the day at a cost of 8,000 men. Though it has become apparent that the Tibetan lancers had difficulty facing superior, armoured, and more numerous Qing Bannermen.
The Tibetans returned to Wuchang for winter.

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Re: The Snow Lion against the Dragon - A Mandate of Heaven A

Post by AlbertoC » Mon Oct 24, 2016 3:36 pm

Early Spring to Late Autumn 1638

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General Norsang Yontan took command of a newly raised army at Chengdu. The force comprised 18,000 foot and 12,000 horse.
After reorganising, Qing General Bujai moved his army from Beijing to Taiyuan. The Qing 2nd army formed at Kaifeng, led by General Warda.
Norsang Yontan moved to Xi’an. Choegyal Talaia attacked Kaifeng but Warda retreated to Taiyuan and met up with Bujai. The consolidated Qing army under Bujai then moved to Kaifeng. Choegyal Talaia refused to fight and moved to Xi’an.
Choegyal Talaia incorporated Norsang Yontan’s troops and marched to Kaifeng. But no battle was fought as the Manchus surprisingly retreated to Taiyuan.
Kaifeng fell to the Tibetan army and Choeyal Talaia then attacked Taiyuan while the Qing were still busy with Xi’an. But winter came too soon and both armies lifted the sieges and returned to friendly territory.

Early Spring 1639

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A new Tibetan army, led by Tsering Labdorn, was formed in Wuchang. The Qing general Niuniu raised an army in Jinan.

Late Spring 1639


Choegyal Talaia marched into Taiyuan and captured it while Tsering marched to defend Kaifeng. The two Qing armies then simultaneously attacked Kaifeng. Tsering Labdorn did not put up a fight and retreated to Wuchang. Kaifeng was once again liberated by the Qing.

Early Summer 1639


Choegyal Talaia boldly marched to Beijing hoping that the Qing would finally give battle. But the Qing armies did not come. General Bujai instead attacked Taiyuan hoping to cut off the Tibetan army besieging Beijing. General Niuniu moved to attack Xi’an.

Late Summer 1639


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Tsering Labdorn moved to rescue the defenders of Xi’an fortress. Niuniu did not fight and retreated to Kaifeng only to be subsequently chased out of the area by Tsering.

Early Autumn 1639 – Late Autumn 1639

Niuniu raided Wuchang. Knowing that Niuniu’s army was not large enough to quickly secure the city, Tsering Labdorn decided to help Choegyal Talaia in the siege of Beijing. The Tibetans eventually captured the capital and ransacked the palace but the emperor was nowhere to be found.
Qing general Bujai was not able to capture Taiyuan before the winter and moved to meet up with Niuniu in Kaifeng. News of the fall of Beijing reached the generals and they held a war council to decide on what to do when hostilities resumed the following year.

Early Spring 1640 – Late Spring 1640


Tibetan reinforcements, led by Thokmay Nawang marched to Taiyuan and met up with Tsering Labdorn. The two armies merged under the command of Tsering. Choegyal Talaia on the other hand attacked Jinan. Bujai marched into undefended Beijing while Niuniu resumed his raid into Wuchang.

Early Summer 1640


Choegyal Talaia went back to Beijing to confront Bujai. But the Qing army retreated back to Kaifeng. Tsering Labdorn marched to Wuchang and Niuniu retreated without a fight.
Bujai then attacked Tsering in Wuchang and the Tibetans instead retreated to Chengdu. Niuniu then moved north to Taiyuan.

Late Summer 1640


Tsering Labdorn continued to apply pressure on Niuniu, no battle was fought in Taiyuan. Choegyal Talaia confronted Bujai in Wuchang - he retreated. There were still no major battles fought during this period but the constant state of withdrawal of the Manchus was affecting their army strength as they constantly lost men in rear-guard actions.

Early Autumn 1640 – Late Autumn


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Tsering chased Niuniu out of Beijing and captured Jinan together with Choegyal Talaia. But the Manchus were able to unexpectedly liberate Beijing before winter!

Early Spring 1641 – Late Autumn 1641


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Tibetan General Yonten Norbu arrived in Chengdu. Tsering Labdorn confronted Niuniu in Kaifeng with the hopes of meeting up with Yonten Norbu. But unlike the previous year, the Qing army did not retreat and decided to fight the attacking Tibetan army instead.

3rd Battle of Kaifeng


Tibet 30,000 vs. Qing 47,000

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The armies met on an open field which would be good for the Tibetan lancers. But they had underestimated the Qing strength. Fortunately, the majority of the Qing army was poorly trained garrison infantry this time around and there were not enough Bannermen to pose a serious threat.
Commander Tsering Labdorn and his infantry were positioned in the centre. To his right were Chokyi Yontan’s lancers. To his left were Thokmay Ngawang’s lancers. Skirmishers were deployed in the front and right.

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The Qing infantry sought to take advantage of the rough ground in between the two armies. Chokyi Yontan chased off the Qing General Sushun’s Bannermen who refused to fight on the right. On the left, Thokmay Nagwang personally engaged Qing General Fuman’s infantry. But Thokmay lost his arm while fighting General Fuman in personal combat.

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Here we see Qing Bannermen catching Chokyi Yontan from the rear as he pursued fleeing infantry, while his other units forced Sushun’s personal cavalry to rout. Unfortunately, Chokyi, the man who was famed for singlehandedly taking on hundreds of opponents, was killed in action.

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In the centre, Tserin Labdorn’s infantry was victorious against the more numerous Qing infantry. The battle ended with thousands of Qing infantry running for their lives.
Tibet lost 4,000 men. Qing lost 25,000 men. Though the overall casualty count seemed to suggest a decisive victory for the Tibetans, their mood was subdued due to the loss of two generals.
A few days after the battle, Yonten Norbu arrived at Kaifeng and joined Tsering’s army. Kaifeng fell by mid-summer.
Choegyal Talaia marched on to Beijing. The Qing armies did not put up a fight and retreated into Shenyang. Tsering and Yonten then joined the siege after taking Kaifeng. Beijing fell by the end of summer. The Qing emperor was caught and executed while the Tibetan lords prepared to set up a new government.

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In the meantime, the Tibetan army led by Choegyal chased the Qing army around China for the rest of the year. No battle was fought.

1642


In the following year, Choegyal continued to pursue the remnants of the Qing army as it fled across several provinces. Each time the Qing withdrew, they lost soldiers to rear guard actions and desertion. The Qing did not get any help from the local Han Chinese. The Qing would finally surrender during the year.

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Unlike the Manchus, the Tibetans did not claim the Mandate of Heaven. They wished for the restoration of the Ming Dynasty instead. They established a new government run by former Ming scholars and bureaucrats. As a sign of gratitude, the Emperor of the restored Ming dynasty elevated the status of the Tibetan Kingdom to a level higher than Joseon Korea. Tibetan ministers and religious leaders were invited to the imperial court where they could directly participate in political affairs. This status also helped secure the Tibetan plateau from Mongol ambition. Unlike before, the Ming was now willing to send troops to aid the Tibetans when invaded but left the Kingdom autonomous.

Author’s notes: This is a work of fiction and in no way expresses any opinion on Sino-Tibetan relations. This scenario is purely hypothetical. Though the Tsangpa dynasty of Tibet gained prominence during this era, the Tibetan lords were mostly pre-occupied with in-fighting backed by different opposing Buddhist sects. The Tsangpa were at odds with the Gelug School of the Dailai Lama. The Gelug would then foster close ties with the Mongols. In 1642, Khoshut Mongols led by Gushi Khan captured the Tsangpa stronghold and Karma Tekyong was taken prisoner. Karma Tekyong was subsequently killed and the Dalai Lama was installed to rule Tibet. Tibet was occupied by the Dzungars in 1717. The Qing sent an expeditionary force to expel the invaders in 1720. After defeating the Dzungars, the Qing kept troops in Tibet and organised a new government and the process of integrating Tibet into China began.

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Re: The Snow Lion against the Dragon - A Mandate of Heaven A

Post by GShock112 » Wed Oct 26, 2016 11:50 am

Huge AAR and huge battles... great post!

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