"Ain-Jalut" 1260, Ilkhanids v. Mamluks

Player written historical scenarios for the Field of Glory gaming system.

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Huaxtec15mm
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"Ain-Jalut" 1260, Ilkhanids v. Mamluks

Post by Huaxtec15mm » Wed May 20, 2009 9:13 am

Here's the first (of hopefully many more) historical scenario I've created for Field of Glory. Please feel free to play test it and distribute it.

If you get a chance to play it I would love to see an AAR or hear any feedback.

Cheers, now onto the battle!

The Battle of Ain –Jalut, 1260:

The Battle of Ain-Jalut ("Goliaths Well") has been described by many authors as one of the ten most important battles in history. While this may be overstating its importance a bit, it makes an excellent battle to re-create, pitting two of the great Horse Archer armies in history against each other (with a few colorful allies thrown in to boot!).

Intro:

The Khwarizmian, Baghdad, and Seljuk States had all toppled before the onslaught of the Mongol War Machine. The Ayyubid Egyptian Empire had been in a state of disarray after the assassination of its Shah by his own Mamluks! This caused many Syrian Cities to declare themselves autonomous states. It was only natural that the Ilkhanid Khan, Hulegu, looked to Syria as his next conquest.

In December of 1259, after receiving at least nominal submission from several prominent Syrian City States, Hulegu led a mixed army of three tuman (including Armenians, Georgians, and Seljuk Turks of Run) and crossed the Euphrates River. After defeating a hastily prepared Syrian army, Hulegu laid waste the numerous Syrian Cities that resisted his call to submit.

In mid-spring, however Hulegu moved the majority of his invasion force to Azerbaijan after learning of the death of the Mongol Khan Mongke. He left a single reinforced tuman* under the command of a general named Ketbugha to establish control in newly won Syria.

Upon hearing the news of the Mongols departure, The Mamaluk Sultan Qutuz rushed the majority of his army, along with Bedouin, Turcoman, and Kurdish Allies, north to confront the single Mongol Tuman.

Due to an unusual lack of good scouting, the Mongols only learned of the Mamluk's approach after a foraging party was defeated by the Mamluk advanced guard, under the command of the future Shah, Baybars. Ketbugha positioned his army in the Biqa Valley, near the natural spring of Ain-Jalut in modern day Israel. On September 2nd the Mamluk advanced guard under Baybars entered the valley and checked a small party of Mongols. On September 3rd the Battle of Ain-Jalut was fought.

Historical outcome:
The battle initially went against the Mamluk's , with their left wing collapsing under a charge by the Mongol right wing. Qutuz was able to rally his army however and lead them to a complete victory over the Mongols, including the death of Ketbugha. While perhaps not "one of the ten most important battles in history," the Mamluk's victory did check the Mongol's advance into Syria for twenty years. The victory was to be a short lived one for Qutuz, however, as he was murdered by his general Baybars whilst enroute back to Egypt.

The Map:

Solid Dark Brown = steep hill, impassable to all figures.
Dark Brown Lines marked "A" = 1 MU wide gulleys and are possible ambush locations for the Mamluk Player. Up to 6 "LH" may be placed at either of these locations in ambush at the start of the battle.
Lt brown = gentle hill, slopes count as "uneven".
Blue, The Nahr Jalut stream is for scenery only, it does cost any movement penalty.

Troop dispositions: (#'s = stands)

Egyptians:

Baybars:
1 General: (Field Commander)
6 Mamluks: cavalry, armored, superior, drilled, bow, swordsmen.
4 Al-Halqa: cavalry, armored, average, drilled, lancer, swordsmen.
8 Al-Halqa: cavalry, armored, average, drilled, bow, swordsmen.
8 Bedouin "Lancers": light horse, unprotected, average, undrilled, lancers, swordsmen.
4 Kurds: cavalry, armored, superior, undrilled, lancer, swordsmen.

Sultan Qutuz:
1 General: (Field Commander)
8 Royal Mamlukes: cavalry, armored, elite, drilled, bow, swordsmen.
6 Mamluks: cavalry, armored, superior, drilled, bow, swordsmen.
8 Al-Halqa: cavalry, armored, superior, drilled, lancer, swordsmen.
8 Al-Halqa: cavalry, armored, average, drilled, bow, swordsmen.

Al-Mansur Mohammad:
1 General: (Field Commander)
4 Mamlukes: cavalry, armored, superior, drilled, bow, swordsmen.
4 Al-Halqa: cavalry, armored, average, drilled, lancer, swordsmen.
8 Al-Halqa: cavalry, armored, average, drilled, bow, swordsmen
4 Syrians: cavalry, armored, average, undrilled, lancer, swordsmen.
8 "Turkomen": light horse, unprotected, average, undrilled, bow, swordsmen.



Mongols:

Baydar:
1 General: (Field Commander)
12 Mongols: light horse, unprotected, superior, drilled, bow, swordsmen.
4 Syrians: cavalry, armored, average, undrilled, lancer, swordsmen.
2 Armenians: knights, superior, undrilled, lancer, swordsmen.
4 Georgians: cavalry, armored, superior, undrilled, bow, swordsmen.

Ketbugha:
1 General: (Field Commander)
12 Mongols: light horse, unprotected, superior, drilled, bow, swordsmen.
8 Mongols: cavalry, armored, superior, drilled, bow, swordsmen.

Al-Ashrat Musa:
1 General: (Field Commander)
12 Mongols: light horse, unprotected, superior, drilled, bow, swordsmen.
6 Mongols: cavalry, protected, average, drilled, bow, swordsmen.
6 Seljuk Turks: light horse, unprotected, average, undrilled, bow, swordsmen.

Troop notes:

Both sides contained "Syrian" Heavy Cavalry units which were actually remnants of the prior Ayyubid State's Amirs and their respective retainers.

*The Ilkhanids are listed in most sources as having two Tuman (usually 10,000 men each) present at the battle, but most modern scholars believe they had only 10-12,000 troops present at the battle (at most!) so these may have been two under strength Tuman, or one reinforced one.

Battle Groups may be assigned as you see fit so long as they concur with the regulations listed in the "Swords and Scimitars" companion book.

Normal army withdrawl/ victory conditions are used but it should be considered a "major victory" if either side kills either "Sultan Qutuz" or Ketbugha".

Map:
http://i392.photobucket.com/albums/pp7/ ... lutFoG.jpg

Primary Sources used:
-"Mongols and Mamluks, The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260-1281" by Reuven Amitai-Preiss (a fabulous study of the first twenty years of Mamluk-Ilkhanid War).
-"Campaigns of the Mongols, Vol. II, The Ilkhanids in Syria" by A Michael Sayce. A "DBA/ DBM" format scenario book covering the four major battles of the war (Ain-Jalut, 2nd Homs, Salamiyya, and Shaqhab).
-"The Mongol Warlords" by David Nicolle. Contains an excellent chapter on the Ilkhanid Khan Hulegu.
-"The Mongols and the West," by Peter Jackson. A good solid read.
-"Devil's Horsemen, the Mongol War Machine." A board wargame by Richard Berg and Mark Herman of "GMT Games." Volume X of their "Great Battles in History" series. Contains separate games for the Mongol battles of Indus River, Kalka River, Liegnitz and Ain-Jalut. A great playing and well researched game (and good source of miniature scenarios!).


Feedback is welcomed!

Stay Tuned:
Homs 1281 is up next!

Danny "Boyo" Riordan
Kenshin68@roadrunner.com
Rin Byo To Sha Kai Jin Rettsu Za Zen!

jmsibiril
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Post by jmsibiril » Sat Apr 30, 2011 8:58 pm

i just wondered if you played this battle....
Mameluk = 1470 points
Mongols = 1030 points....

sorry, it's unplayable

philqw78
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Post by philqw78 » Sat Apr 30, 2011 9:17 pm

jmsibiril wrote:i just wondered if you played this battle....
Mameluk = 1470 points
Mongols = 1030 points....

sorry, it's unplayable
Its unplayable as a competition game. It's playable as a historical recreation.
phil
putting the arg into argumentative

madaxeman
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Post by madaxeman » Sat Apr 30, 2011 11:17 pm

As a suggestion, in light of the points imbalanceand the historical outcome, maybe different victory conditions may be needed for each side. A straight "army breaks as per the rules" for both may be unfair on the
mongols.

If historically the Mongols broke 1 wing of the
mamluks, maybe splitting at least the Mamluks, maybe both the armies into 2 or 3 chunks, each with it's own break point, and having mongol victory conditions of minor victory for breaking 1 chunk, major for breaking 2 etc might work

Equally, if a rallying of the Mamluk army was a key occurrence, maybe allowing the Mamluk CinC to rally multiple routers simultaneously when they are within 12" of both him and the table edge (or some other point) could help?
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IanB3406
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Post by IanB3406 » Sun Jun 19, 2011 7:40 am

I believe that upgrading the Mongols to Cav Protected/Unprotected Superior Drilled Sword instead of Light horse will help the Mongols some here. I wouldn't consider it on less than an 8 foot board in 15mm. I've always wanted to play this but don't have the figures.

Ian

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