1 Ming Northern Army,1590-1640
《九边图说》,Offical military manul of Ming Dynasty, written in 1534.
《武备志》,a military book,written in 1621
《平番得胜图》,this painting collected by Prince Qiyang,described Ming army fight a battle in Gansu Province,1575
《三省备边图志》,a war memoir written in 1600s
《车营叩答合编》，written by Sun Chengzong，the High Commander of Liaodong(Northeast China) in1621- 1626,Ming's Ministry of War.
《开原图说》,a military book about Liaodong,Written by Fengyuan,Commander of Kaiyuan,in 1618
《左良玉出师图》,a painting made on late Ming.
《纪效新书》,《练兵实纪》,books talk about weapon and training,written by Qi Jiguang,the Chief-Commander of Ming Northern Army in 1568-1582
Army list:Standing Manpower:11750 men
1 Cavalry,30.6% of Total power,3600 men
On 《平番得胜图》,cavalry equip sword and bow.《三省备边图志》said their use lance,when other account record firearm also be used. Sun Chengzong said more than 40% cavalry use firearm ，but it should be too idealized.
Cavalry with bows and light lance,7 squads,total 2800 men.
Cavalry with handgun or matchlocks,2 squads ,total 800 men
Emperor Wanli of Ming
2 Infantry,59.5%,7000 men.firearm 25%,bows 17.1%
As 《开原图说》,an firearm battalion should has 320 handguns,350 protectors,40 light gun.This battalion covered by other 4 squads,each has 300 men,include 90 spears,50 firearm,135 bows.A battle group totally has 360 spears,500 bows,500 firearm,80 light gun,500 other weapon.
On《左良玉出师图》,spears as long as two men,so it shouldn’t be light spear.I use spearsmen.Manchu accounts record Ming’s spearsmen equip light Armor,but in Battle of Hunhe river(AD1621),Ming’s spearsmen wear double armors.
Infantry with spears ,some have heavy armor,3 squads,total 1500 men
Infantry with handguns and matchlocks,5 squads,total 2500 men
Infantry with bows and spears,4 squads,total 2000 men
Infantry with swords and shields,1 squads,500 men
Jiading-General's personal bodyguards,1 squads,500 men
3 Artillery,9.8%.1150 men,20-30 medium guns,10 heavy guns.
As Qi jiguang record,Northern army’s Artillery battalion has 256 Fo langji(inculde light and medium,light about 200,mix with infantry),4 huo jianche,8 Dajiangjun pao.
Fo langji,3 squads,750 men
Huo jianche,1 squad,200 men
Dajiangjun pao or Hongyi pao,1 squad,200 men
2 Japanese army,1593-1597
《日本戰史》,Wriiten by Japanese General-Staff,1880s
《亂中雜錄》，a war memoir about Japanese-korea war,written in 1650s
《島津家文書》，Account from Shimadzu Clan，record the army list of Shimadzu Clan in Japanese-korea war.
Army list:Standing Manpower:11000
1 Samurai.22.7% of total.2500 men.40%cavalry,60% infantry.
As 《日本戰史》，on a battle in AD1591,there are total 1700 men, include 300 Samurais,150 on horse,150 on foot.In a battle group in AD 1582,there are 11 horse Samurais and 40 foot samurais in total 170 men.Other Sengoku accounts said there are 5%-15% horse Samurais and 10%-20% foot samurais in an army ,depend on the region’s economic.a region is richer,there are more horse samurais and less on foot,and vice versa.
Horse samurais with lance,3 squads,total 750 men.
Horse samurais with bow or matchlock,1 squads,250 men
Foot samurais with bow or spear,3 squads,total 1500 men
2 Ashigaru.77.2% of total.8500 men.28% matchlock, 23.3% bow,48 spears.
The equipment of Ashigaru is very complex and highly depend on region’s economic.On the whole,the ration of spears and range weapon is 1:1,the same as ratio of bows and matchlock.Ashigaru have armor but much smaller and thinner than Samurai,most only protect their chest and back.
Spear Ashigaru,4 squads,total 2000 men
Matchlock Ashigaru,mix with spears,6 squads,total 3000 men
Bow Ashigaru,mix with spears,5 squads,total 2500 men
Sword Ashigaru,2 squads,total 1000 men
3 Manchu Army,1619-1644
《满文老档》,Qing’s official record about Manchu time,written on 1635
《满洲实录》,A record about manchu,with picture,written on 1627-1636.
《大清会典》,the first Qing’s official court system record,written on 1690.
Army list:Standing Manpower:10900
1 Cavalry.36.7% of total.4000 men.
As 《满文老档》 and 《满洲实录》,there are half men on Manchu army are cavalry,but many of them fight on foot as heavy infantry.Manchu cavalry equip long armor,looks like ming’s but thicker and heavier,add with iron mask and arm guard.Their use lance,bows and swords.
Hujun,Elite Cavalry with heavy armor.2 squads,total 800 men
Xiaoqi,8 squads,total 3200 men.
2 Infantry.59.6% of total.6500 men.1500 are dismounted cavalry.bows 28%, matchlock 14%.
Before AD1626,there are many non-manchu people in Manchu’s army,used firearm.But after this year,most of them were expelled.All old firearm was weeded out,only left matchlock.Most Infantry’s armor is shorter than cavalry,some wear chain mail.
Qianfeng,Vanguard of army,use spear and matchlock.1 squad,500 men.
Changjiabing,dismounted cavalry,use bows and spears.2 squads,1500 men.
Huoqibing,infantry with matchlock.2 squads,1000 men.
Changqiangbing,infantry with spears.4 squads,2000 men.
Duanjiabing,infantry with spears and bows.4 squads,2000 men.
3 Artillery.3.6% of total,400 men.
Manchu use former ming’s artillery,but before 1644 they never have regular artillery battalion.After invade Central Plain,Manchu build several Heavy-artillery battalion.
Dajiangjun pao or Hongyi pao,2squads,400 men.
New update:Dashing King 闯王
Begging food all the day, poor man hard to live in nowaday.朝求升，暮求合，近来贫汉难存活。
Hurrp up open gate,Dashing king will bring happy day.
Killing cattle,preparing wine,open gate for Dashing king,Dashing king come no more tax.
Eat it all,dress it all,depending on our Dashing king.
No more labor,no more tax，everyone enjoy happy time.
----folk song in Ming dynasty
AD1629，a huge wave peasant revolt break in China.A former soldier,Li zicheng,join the rebel,and soon become one of the most famous leaders.After his uncle, peasant leader Gao yingxiang,the Dashing King ,was killed in AD1636,LI succed his title.AD1638,Li' was defeated by Governor Sun chuanting.Nearly all rebel were eliminated.Li flee into Shangluo Mountain.After two years guerrilla,Li appeared in Henan again in AD1640.Next two years,Dashing Army grow stronger,destroyed several Ming's field army group,inculde two Governors.Many Ming's soldier join in Dashing Army,make Li become the most powerful peasant leader.Li's old enemy,Sun chuanting were defeated in AD 1642 and lose all his eilte army.Sun and his new-train army group were surrounded and totally annihilated in AD 1643.Now the empire losed it's last mobile force.
The Dashing Army soon marching to Beijing without any efffective resistance.Half empire soon surrendered to Dashing King.AD 1644, April 25，empire's capital,Beijing, was Fallen.Emperor Chongzhen commited suicide.The Ming Dynasty was overthrowed.Li zicheng claimed himself emperor,and built the new dynasty:Shun.
But only 21 days later,with formor Ming's general Wu sangui's betrayal,Li zicheng was defeated by Manchu army in Shanhai Pass.He retreated to his old base,Xian,but also can't held it.Most formor Ming's officials surrendered to Manchu,made suituation more terrible.Li decided marching to Jiangsu as new base.He still controled more than 300000 strong Dashing Army.But when passed by Hubei,he led only 14 horseman,was ambushed by one thousand pro-Ming's soldiers.His strong army-only 2 miles away-didn't save their Dashing King.
After their King dead,the Dashing Army soon collapsed.Some of them join Southern Ming,and became the last force resisted Manchu's Qing empire,in AD 1664.
1 Dashing Army
Compare with Ming's and Qing's army,Dashing Army have more flexible army table.I put them in several part.
1/ Liumin流民，“Fleeing peasants”
They are only peasants armed with light spear,have huge number but nearly no combat experience.They support Dashing Army's supply and reinforce fresh blood.In history,this guys few appeared in battlefield.In AD 1643，Dashing Army used them to
surrounded Sun chuanting's 100000 huge army.
They are Dashing Army's backbone,formed by strong peasants and defected Ming's regional troops.Overall,this part have some military training and have high moral.They use many kinds of weapon,inculde Polearm,Spears,Bow and handguns.Before 1640, peasant Army was very lack of Technical weapon like artillery.This suituation changed in AD1642，as many elite field army soldiers were captured and joined Dashing Army.
They are Dashing King's most elite troops,formed by most brave rebel and formor empire field soldiers.In AD1644,Li zicheng planed use LaoYing as model to reorganize his new empire army.We don't now this progress go how far coz Shun dynasty soon collapsed.Some viewed said this 40000 elite troops almost all were destroyed in battle of Shanhai Pass.It may explain why Dashing Army's combat power decline soon after retreated from Beijing.
They are light horseman with bow and spears. Dashing Army have much more elite cavalry troops than Ming Dynasty.Light horseman is a very important tactics unit in Dashing Army, to cut enemy's supply line.That is the most important reason that Sun chuanting and his huge army destroyed in AD 1643.
Thay are heavy shock cavalry with heavy armour.It said that Dashing King alway put his cavalry in three line,call it SanDuQiang三堵墙(Three Walls).When battle come to match point,those cavalry will luach enthusiastic charge line by line,deal a crushing blow to the enemy.
2 Shun Army
They are the Dashing Army after 1644.It have similar army list as Dashing Army,but without Liumin and have more others.I make it to Pro-ming,so we can use them to fight with Qing Army
3 Other changes
1/ fix some error
2/ lower the rank of Ming Army.Now Qing's heavy Hongyi pao will show them dominant position.In history,this kind cannon make most fort of Ming like dust,also ruin Dashing Army's strong defence in Xian.
3/I give Ming a new Heavy Cavalry with Glavie,called JiaDing家丁.They are general's private bodygurd.After 1600s,many Ming's general use more than half soldier's pay to keep JiaDing as their army's core,made other common soldiers can't recived enough money and food.That why more and more experienced soldiers join Qing and Dashing Army.
Note: It is a custom battle mod,but should also work with campaign mode.
Thanks to mittermaye from www. Toaw.org,who give me most Sources.
File:https://www.dropbox.com/s/ih8isqbr2efeq ... 0.zip?dl=0